By C.L. Sheng
1.1 Utilitarian Theories This ebook is a monograph on ethical philosophy and social philosophy, fairly the a part of the philosophy of economics that's on the topic of the overall distribution challenge. It provides a entire moral concept, including an software of the speculation to distributive justice. the point of view of this concept is utilitarian. despite the fact that, this thought is diverse in a few the most important issues, in addition to in minor information, from all current different types of utilitarianism. ethical philosophy offers primarily with the ethical judgment of activities, i. e., even if an ethical motion is correct or flawed, stable or undesirable. The judgment is generally in line with a line of logical reasoning, which might be traced to a last cause referred to as the justification or final precept. a moral conception is a self-consistent procedure outfitted upon a easy, or final, precept. An final precept can by no means be conscientiously confirmed, and isn't targeted. varied philosophers identify varied moral theories upon diverse rules. accordingly, within the heritage of improvement of ethical philosophy, there were a lot of moral theories and colleges. Even wi skinny a similar institution having a similar final precept, diversified philosophers can have assorted types of the idea, due to small diversifications within the interpretation of the final word precept or within the elaboration of the details.
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Additional resources for A New Approach to Utilitarianism: A Unified Utilitarian Theory and Its Application to Distributive Justice
4 Deduction and Statistics Formal logic was originally a subfield of philosophy, and the deductive method not only has been widely used for reasoning and discourse in philosophy, but also has been, to this point, the dominant method. However, values in particular and concepts of philosophical entities in general are not necessarily definite and certain, because sometimes proposi tions either are only personal subjective beliefs, judgments or opinions, or are not completely true or completely false, but are true with a certain probability.
Further suppose that it is impossible to measure or determine the pains of the slaves and the pleasures of the masters. Then how can we find out that the slave system is a bad system? It takes time for a society to deteriorate when it is on the decline. So when a society has some bad systems, institutions and/or practices, it can still be stable and prosperous for some time. There seems to be no systematic way to tell whether a social norm is good or bad, i. , whether or not it can be regarded as a moral standard.
324-344. Richard B. Brant, "Toward a Credible Form of Utilitarianism," in Contemporary Utilitarianism, ed. Michael D. Bayles (Gloucester, Massachusetts: Peter Smith, 1978), pp. 143-186. See also R. B. Brandt, A Theory of the Good and the Right (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979). Hill: Utilitarianism, 21. R. G. Frey, "Introduction: Utilitarianism and Persons," in Utility ed. R. G. Frey (Minneapolis, Minnesota: The University of Minnesota Press, 1984), pp. 3-19. and Rights, 22. John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (Cambridge, Massachusetts: University Press, 1971), p.