Active Labour Market Policies and Welfare Reform: Europe and by A. Daguerre

By A. Daguerre

Analyzing fresh coverage responses to social exclusion within the US, France, Denmark, the united kingdom, and on the european point seeing that 1997, Daguerre argues that the advance of energetic labour industry guidelines isn't the solution and that the reforms are indicative of a shift in the direction of conditional welfare. The e-book is predicated on in-depth interviews with key coverage makers.

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Whereas Social Security was viewed as a 'sacred governmental obligation', welfare programmes, essentially Aid to Dependent Children (ADC) was seen as a 'handout to barely deserving The Evolution of the US Workfare Model 29 people' (Skocpol, 1988: 296). ADC was the principal component of the lower tier of the Social Security system. This programme was modified to Aid to Families with Dependent Children in 1961 (AFDC). The original 1935 legislation empowered states to enact their own welfare measures and administrative arrangements.

It is thus no coincidence that Bill Clinton's ambiguous promise 'to end welfare as we know it' became one of the most powerful slogans of the New Democrats in the 1992 presidential campaign and set the stage for a radical revolution in US social policy. In August 1996, the US Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA). Under the new legislation, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) replaced AFDC. TANF created a five-year lifetime limit for receiving cash assistance and obliged welfare recipients, 90 per cent being single mothers, to find paid employment as quickly as possible.

The reasons for this lack of legitimacy lay in the fact that welfare recipients were deemed dependent on social assistance. In the 1980s, deep-rooted negative views about the poor and the rise of neoliberal doctrines played a crucial role in the emergence of a political backlash against this programme. Political elites emphasised the role of individual responsibility as opposed to welfare dependency. The idea that 'welfare queens' - as President Ronald Reagan called black welfare recipients- could drive luxury cars at the expense of taxpayers was particularly repellent to middle-class US voters.

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