Agency and Answerability: Selected Essays by Gary Watson

By Gary Watson

Because the Seventies Gary Watson has released a chain of great and hugely influential essays on human motion, studying such questions as: in what methods are we unfastened and never unfastened, rational and irrational, in charge or no longer for what we do? ethical philosophers and philosophers of motion will welcome this assortment, representing essentially the most very important our bodies of labor within the box.

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28 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 THE CHARACTERIZATION OF WHAT IS LOGICAL Schopenhauer, for example, denies the possibility of any ethical training on the basis of his theory of inborn character. The will as thing in itself is determined once and for all. It enters the world of phenomena as the absolutely fixed, invariable, empirical nature of human beings. And, this is the source of all morality or immorality. One can control acts outwardly, but not intrinsically determine the attitudes originating in one’s inborn character through upbringing, through example, and moral theory.

The task arises to go beyond the sphere of what is directly given. And, it is the essence and achievement of science to lead us beyond it in a systematic way. Science is the sphere of what is no longer obvious, but is based on the obvious. And, the main point here is to collect and connect what is obvious in a suitable way, so that something new, something no longer obvious may arise from it. 16 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 THE CHARACTERIZATION OF WHAT IS LOGICAL Were all truths to admit of direct substantiation by directly going back to evidencing intuition, were that kind of evidencing possible, at least for anyone with sufficient talent, with a certain mental constitution, with suitable preparation, then it would never have occurred to humanity to build up proofs and theories and thus science.

The thinking peculiar to it, or at least essential to it, represents a higher-intellective layer. We do not ascribe that kind of thinking to animals, though in their way they too possess minds, have perceptions and experiences, draw conclusions, and so on. Animals do not, then, have any science either. The lower, non-logical way of thinking is common to humans and animals. We certainly do not always think 5 logically. We also are not constantly practicing science. In pre-scientific conceptualizing and judging, especially in that of humans in the state of nature, but also in our own conceptualizing in areas of everyday, practical activities, acts of thinking of course individually occur that we can claim to be logical and essentially analogous to scientific ones: well-founded judgments, inferences rigorously carried out and well-founded in a logical manner.

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