By K. Feste
What coverage is better for the U.S. to minimize the specter of Islamic extremist terrorism? contemporary American presidents have utilized replacement clash solution techniques. Clinton practiced clash avoidance, conversing difficult yet hardly ever retaliating opposed to anti-American terrorist assaults. G. W. Bush followed a fighter method and the worldwide conflict on Terrorism and armed forces interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq mirror this technique. Obama brought a 3rd substitute: challenge fixing and increasing peaceable overtures whereas maintaining resistance. Will the tactic be triumphant? Feste analyzes presidential rhetoric on counterterrorism coverage during the lens of factor framing, enemy aggression, self -hardship, and victimization expressed in a number of speeches added through those leader executives to spotlight and evaluate their clash solution techniques.
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Extra resources for America Responds to Terrorism: Conflict Resolution Strategies of Clinton, Bush, and Obama (The Evolving American Presidency)
Indd 25 3/18/2011 5:39:59 PM 26 America Responds to Terrorism decision problems. They chose to apply the label “frame” to descriptions of decision problems at two levels: the formulation to which decision makers are exposed and the interpretation that they construct for themselves. Choices are framed as gains or losses relative to the status quo. People will take greater risks if they perceive losses to their status quo position rather than gains to it. When decision options appear framed as a likely gain, risk averse choices predominate.
Framing refers to the way a conflict is described; reframing is “the process of changing the way a thought is presented so that it maintains its fundamental meaning but is more likely to support resolution efforts. Successive reframing comes into play because complex conflicts or issues cannot easily be effectively reframed in one clever effort. It is an interactive and iterative communication process. A key to an effectively framed conflict is that the essential interests or needs of the key participants are reflected in the framing.
Framing the attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon as evil terrorism registered easily with the public. Entman (2004) recalls that in the immediate aftermath of the bombing of the Federal Building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995, which killed nearly 200 people, the media speculated about the possible role of Middle Eastern terrorists— the familiar mental pathway. It took awhile for political leaders, the media, and the public to accept an unfamiliar interpretation to explain the terrorism, namely that a domestic militia subculture had created a homegrown, all-American, Caucasian terrorist, Timothy McVeigh.