By Meyer, Hurst, Gray, Lewis
The 5th variation keeps its completeness, updates the insurance of bipolar applied sciences, and complements the dialogue of bicmos. It presents a extra unified remedy of electronic and analog circuit layout whereas strengthening the insurance of cmos. The bankruptcy on non-linear analog circuits has been got rid of and bankruptcy eleven has been up to date to incorporate an operational amplifier instance. versions for integrated-circuit energetic units bipolar, mos, and bicmos integrated-circuit expertise single-transistor and multiple-transistor amplifiers present mirrors, lively rather a lot, and references output levels operational amplifiers with single-ended outputs frequency reaction of built-in circuits suggestions frequency reaction and balance of suggestions amplifiers nonlinear analog circuits noise in built-in circuits totally differential operational amplifiers
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Extra info for Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits
This picture of device carrier concentrations can be used to derive some general equations describing transistor behavior. Each of the distributions in Fig. 11 is considered separately and the two contributions are combined. 60) where IES is a constant that is often referred to as the saturation current of the junction (no connection with the transistor saturation previously described). 60 predicts that the junction current is given by IEF IES with a reverse-bias voltage applied. 60) is applicable only in the forward-bias region, since second-order effects dominate under reverse-bias conditions and typically result in a junction current several orders of magnitude larger than IES .
25, which is a typical plot of fT versus IC for an integrated-circuit npn transistor. The decline in fT at high collector currents is not predicted by this simple theory and is due to an increase in F caused by high-level injection and Kirk effect at high currents. 5. 25 Typical curve of fT versus IC for an npn integrated-circuit transistor with 6 m2 emitter area in a high-speed process. 25 mA and 9 with IC = 1 mA. Assuming that high-level injection effects are negligible, calculate Cje and F , assuming both are constant.
Thus all the characteristics extrapolate to the same point on the VCE axis. The variation of IC with VCE is called the Early effect, and VA is a common model parameter for circuit-analysis computer programs. Typical values of VA for integrated-circuit transistors are 15 to 100 V. The inclusion of Early effect in dc bias calculations is usually limited to computer analysis because of the complexity introduced into the calculation. However, the inﬂuence of the Early effect is often dominant in small-signal calculations for high-gain circuits and this point will be considered later.