By J. Pokorný, N Yanishlieva, M. Gordon
(Woodhead Publishing) presents a overview of the practical function of antioxidants and discusses how they are often successfully exploited by means of the foodstuff undefined. define structure.
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Additional info for Antioxidants in food: practical applications
G. soybeans, can be an important source of hydroperoxides formed in the oil during extraction. In vegetables, oxidative changes due to the enzyme may lead to off-flavours during storage. The enzyme does, however, contribute to flavour formation in some plant foods including tomatoes and cucumbers. Lipoxygenase activity requires the presence of free polyunsaturated fatty acids. Linoleic acid is the most common substrate in plant foods. The enzyme occurs in a variety of isozymes, which often vary in optimum pH, as well as product and substrate specificity.
B-carotene, with tocopherols150–153 and other phenolic antioxidants such as tert-butylated © 2001 by Woodhead Publishing Ltd. hydroquinone (TBHQ)154 and quercitrin155 synergistically inhibited lipid peroxidation. 156 Mortensen and Skibsted157 found that the rate of this reaction increased with the number of conjugated double bonds in the carotenoids and decreased in the presence of hydroxy and especially keto groups. 1 shows the dependence of the IP on the composition of the mixtures lard–sunflower oil and tallow–olive oil during oxidation at 100 °C.
Lipoxygenase 4 is very similar to isozyme 3, but can be separated by gel chromatography or electrophoresis. Lipoxygenase isozymes are commonly classified as type 1, which have an optimum pH in the alkaline region and are specific for free fatty acids, and type 2, which has optimum activity at neutral pH and causes co-oxidation of carotenoids. The ability of lipoxygenase type 2 to bleach carotenoids has found practical application in the addition of soya flour to wheat flour in order to bleach the flour in the manufacture of white bread.