By Adrian Needs, Graham J. Towl
This ebook illustrates the wide range of functions of psychology to the legal and civil justice system.Illustrates the wide range of functions of psychology to the felony and civil justice procedure. offers examples of the way forensic psychology can profit not just from scientific and criminological methods, but in addition from the insights of occupational, cognitive, developmental and social psychology. some of the chapters introduce readers to components that have no longer acquired broad assurance in different places. comprises new instructions in forensic perform. Chapters draw out the consequences for pros operating within the box. participants comprise either teachers and practitioners. displays either the scope and the potential for forensic psychology.
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Extra info for Applying Psychology to Forensic Practice (Forensic Practice series)
Alternatively, an intervention could have the effect of increasing reconviction rates, this being a desirable outcome if the treatment graduates go on to hand themselves in to the police more readily, perhaps as a self-regulatory relapse-prevention strategy to prevent an escalation in offending. Jones, 2002a) and increase the rate ofreconvictionsa fact that is often obfuscated by using aggregated data without looking at the individual cases within the sample. Captured as a single equation this can be expressed as: AR=(TE + GTI) - (TSR + TD + TIR) + (NTV) AR = Post-treatment change in reconviction TE = Treatment impact on increasing reconviction evasion (= Treatment impact on evading being reported + Treatment impact on evading getting caught + Treatment impact on evading conviction) GTI = Genuine treatment impact on reducing reconviction TSR = Treatment impact on increasing self-regulatoryoffending (offendingto avoid more serious offending) TD = Treatment impact on increasing disclosure of offences TIR = Treatment impact on increasing offending which also results in reconviction NTV = Other treatment and non-treatment sources of variance OFFENCE PARALLELING BEHAVIOUR AS A FRAMEWORK 37 Unfortunately the ‘what works’ literature and third-generation actuarial assessment strategies (for reviews see McGuire, 1 9 9 5 ; Gendreau, 1 9 9 6 ; Andrews & Bonta, 1998) have been seriously compromised by their heavy use of reconviction as an outcome.
In terms of psychological theory, the assessment involves an evaluation of the child’s response to interventions in different settings. Although traditional assessments, focusing on the child’scharacteristics, were high in reliability, assessments where interventions are evaluated as part of an ongoing process, done in naturalistic settings, should maximize validity (Wilson, 1991; McPhee, 1992). Research does not identify any one approach as suitable for all young offenders,but broadly, the more effective programmes are targeted at high- and medium-risk offenders,challenge ways of thinking as well as ways ofbehaving, and adhere to agreed objectives and structures.
In young offenders, crime-related factors exist in tandem with needs associated with the biological and social changes of adolescence. Whyte (1998) suggests that the ‘most important single fact about crime is that it is committed mainly by teenagers and young adults’. He goes on to suggest: many young people, whatever their background, offend at some time, though not frequently; youth crime is not rising out of control; the range of crimes up to the age of seventeen tends not to be very serious; 20 MARK WILSON most young people who offend do not come to the attention of the authorities; most young people who offend stop without formal intervention.