By Jorge Ancheyta
Designed for scientists operating for petroleum and catalyst businesses, this article re-examines the characterization and conversion of asphaltenes.
Read or Download Asphaltenes : chemical transformation during hydroprocessing of heavy oils PDF
Similar petroleum books
The Murzuq Basin is a big intracratonic sag basin situated in southwestern Libya. Exploration efforts began during this enormous and distant Saharan zone already in 1957 and 60 exploratory wells were drilled so far, leading to over 20 discoveries with round 4,000 million barrels of oil in position.
Even if as a textbook for the petroleum engineering pupil or a reference for the veteran engineer operating within the box, this new quantity is a worthy asset within the engineer’s library for brand new, validated equipment of extra effective oil and fuel exploration and creation and higher estimating methods. during this publication, the authors mix a rigorous, but effortless to appreciate, method of petrophysics and the way it really is utilized to petroleum and environmental engineering to resolve a number of difficulties that the engineer or geologist faces on a daily basis.
Advisor to useful Use of chemical substances in Refineries and Pipelines can provide a well-rounded number of content material, references, and patents to teach all of the functional chemical offerings on hand for refinery and pipeline utilization, in addition to their reasons, advantages, and normal features. masking the complete spectrum of downstream operations, this reference solves the numerous difficulties that engineers and bosses presently face, together with corrosion, leakage in pipelines, and pretreatment of heavy oil feedstocks, anything that's of starting to be curiosity with cutting-edge unconventional job.
- Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies for Improved Environmental Performance. Towards Zero Carbon Transportation
- Transient Well Testing
- The Petroleum Engineering Handbook: Sustainable Operations
- Blowout and Well Control Handbook
Additional info for Asphaltenes : chemical transformation during hydroprocessing of heavy oils
VPO allows for determining an absolute value for the number-average molecular weight. Values obtained for low molecular weight species and nonpolar compounds are reliable by using this technique. Even the values obtained by VPO are similar to those obtained by mass spectroscopy when analyzing resins and crude oils (Yang and Eser, 1999). 21 Estimated molecular weight of monomer and aggregate asphaltenes in two different solvents: () monomer () aggregate. , 2000. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. ) When analyzing asphaltenes, different values have been obtained depending on the solvent used.
5. FT-IR analysis of asphaltenes shows the presence of different groups such as ˇOH, ˇCH3, ˇCH2CH3. Hydrogen bonded to phenols is present in the range of 3,100 to 3,300 cm−1. , 2005). 5 Functional Groups Present in Asphaltenes by Infrared Spectroscopy Functional Group Absorption Band (cm−1) ˇOH, ˇNH stretch OH contributing to different hydrogen bondsa 3600–3300 OHˇπ hydrogen bond Self-associated n-mers (n>3) 3530 OHˇether O hydrogen bonds Tightly bound cyclic OH tetramers OHˇN (acid/base structures) COOH dimmers Aromatic hydrogen Aliphatic hydrogen 3400 3280 3150 2940 ˇCH, ˇCH2, ˇCH3 stretching regions 2640 3050 2993, 2920 3000–2800 ˇSH stretching regions ~2500 CﬁO 1800–1600 Keton (CﬁO stretching) 1735–1705 Aldehide (CﬁO stretching) 1740–1730 Conjugated CﬁC 1650, 1600 Aromatic CﬁC 1602 ˇCH, ˇCH2, ˇCH3 bending regions Methyl bending vibrations Ether or ester group Ester linkage Sulfoxide groups 1450–1375 CˇS, CˇO, CˇN stretching regions Aromatic CˇH bending Two adjacent H 1 adjacent H 2 adjacent H 3 adjacent H 4 adjacent H 5 adjacent H Alkyl chain longer than four methylene groups 1377 1306 1032 1030 ~1000 900–700 810 900–860 860–800 810–750 770–735 710–690 (or 770–730) 725–720 Obtained by diffuse reflectance infrared.
2. It is seen that asphaltenes content is almost constant. 5 h. 5 h and varying the solvent-to-oil ratio, asphaltenes amount increases and it remains almost constant from a ratio of 3:1 to 5:1. For assuring the correct precipitation of asphaltenes at least a ratio of 3:1 is required; however, the solvent-to-oil ratio of 5:1 was preferred to precipitate all asphaltenes with n-C7. The three crudes studied in this work have different asphaltene contents, which can be classified as high asphaltenes content (CO-3), middle asphaltenes content (CO-2), and low asphaltenes content (CO-1).