Asphaltenes : chemical transformation during hydroprocessing by Jorge Ancheyta

By Jorge Ancheyta

Designed for scientists operating for petroleum and catalyst businesses, this article re-examines the characterization and conversion of asphaltenes.

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VPO allows for determining an absolute value for the number-average molecular weight. Values obtained for low molecular weight species and nonpolar compounds are reliable by using this technique. Even the values obtained by VPO are similar to those obtained by mass spectroscopy when analyzing resins and crude oils (Yang and Eser, 1999). 21 Estimated molecular weight of monomer and aggregate asphaltenes in two different solvents: () monomer () aggregate. , 2000. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. ) When analyzing asphaltenes, different values have been obtained depending on the solvent used.

5. FT-IR analysis of asphaltenes shows the presence of different groups such as ˇOH, ˇCH3, ˇCH2CH3. Hydrogen bonded to phenols is present in the range of 3,100 to 3,300 cm−1. , 2005). 5 Functional Groups Present in Asphaltenes by Infrared Spectroscopy Functional Group Absorption Band (cm−1) ˇOH, ˇNH stretch OH contributing to different hydrogen bondsa 3600–3300 OHˇπ hydrogen bond Self-associated n-mers (n>3) 3530 OHˇether O hydrogen bonds Tightly bound cyclic OH tetramers OHˇN (acid/base structures) COOH dimmers Aromatic hydrogen Aliphatic hydrogen 3400 3280 3150 2940 ˇCH, ˇCH2, ˇCH3 stretching regions 2640 3050 2993, 2920 3000–2800 ˇSH stretching regions ~2500 CfiO 1800–1600 Keton (CfiO stretching) 1735–1705 Aldehide (CfiO stretching) 1740–1730 Conjugated CfiC 1650, 1600 Aromatic CfiC 1602 ˇCH, ˇCH2, ˇCH3 bending regions Methyl bending vibrations Ether or ester group Ester linkage Sulfoxide groups 1450–1375 CˇS, CˇO, CˇN stretching regions Aromatic CˇH bending Two adjacent H 1 adjacent H 2 adjacent H 3 adjacent H 4 adjacent H 5 adjacent H Alkyl chain longer than four methylene groups 1377 1306 1032 1030 ~1000 900–700 810 900–860 860–800 810–750 770–735 710–690 (or 770–730) 725–720 Obtained by diffuse reflectance infrared.

2. It is seen that asphaltenes content is almost constant. 5 h. 5 h and varying the solvent-to-oil ratio, asphaltenes amount increases and it remains almost constant from a ratio of 3:1 to 5:1. For assuring the correct precipitation of asphaltenes at least a ratio of 3:1 is required; however, the solvent-to-oil ratio of 5:1 was preferred to precipitate all asphaltenes with n-C7. The three crudes studied in this work have different asphaltene contents, which can be classified as high asphaltenes content (CO-3), middle asphaltenes content (CO-2), and low asphaltenes content (CO-1).

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